Zhang, Lin, et al. "Should open access lead to closed research? The trends towards paying to perform research." Scientometrics, (2022).
This study analyses the global trends to paying to perform research by combing observed shifts in publishing from 2015 to 2020 with an article processing charges (APC) price list in the Open Access (OA) sector, as APC expenses have sharply increased among six countries with different OA policies.
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This paper indicates that, while between 2016 and 2020 the total article processing charge amounts have fluctuated in the United States, these have increased in the United Kingdom, France, Norway, and the Netherlands, while steeply rising in both absolute and relative terms in China in the same period.